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December 11, 2020

Fixing UEFI boot order on HP Stream 14

I’m in the process of installing Linux Mint 19 on our little library’s several Windows computers. The latest candidate was an HP Stream 14, a small, lightweight laptop that is crippled in various ways, so I wouldn’t recommended it except as a cheap toy. I was finally able to get Mint and Windows 10 to dual-boot successfully, but it took a day’s worth of internet searching combined with lots of trial and error.

The Stream 14 is crippled in these ways:

  • It is missing an ethernet port, which is a problem if you care about the lack of security in wi-fi.
  • It has an SSD, but its capacity is very small: 60 GB, 41 GB of which is taken up by Windows 10 (but see Update at the end of this post).
  • Its BIOS does not let you change the UEFI boot order, forcing Windows to boot by default.

The last of these problems is the most serious of the three; fortunately there is a solution, described below. But the first step was to install Mint. In order to do that, I had to enter the BIOS at startup by hitting the Esc key rapidly until a simple menu was displayed. Then hitting F10 entered the BIOS. In the boot options, I disabled Secure Boot, enabled Legacy Support, and moved the USB Hard Disk up to the top of the boot order. Then I was able to boot Mint from a USB stick.

The installation of Mint went successfully, but upon restarting the system, the Grub menu did not appear. Instead, the system booted straight into Windows 10. I was able to boot Mint by the usual frantic pressing of the Esc key on power-up, hitting F9 to get to a UEFI boot menu, and then selecting “ubuntu”, which was the second item on this menu.

I then tried restarting the computer and entering the BIOS to see if I could change the UEFI boot order. The BIOS tricks you into thinking you can do this if you select “OS Boot Manager” in the boot order options. This displays the same two options that you see in the Esc-F9 startup boot options: Windows and Ubuntu. But it’s not possible to move Ubuntu to the top of the list.

The HP support forums were useless in solving this problem. Apparently the HP employees answering the questions in those forums are trained monkeys working from scripts, and do not actually understand how their computers work.

I found the solution in the first answer to this forum post. The solution was to boot Linux and overwrite Microsoft’s UEFI boot loader with the Ubuntu one. I did this using these commands as root:

cd /boot/efi/EFI
cp Microsoft/Boot/bootmgfw.efi Microsoft/bootmgfw.efi
cp ubuntu/grubx64.efi Microsoft/Boot/bootmgfw.efi

After running update-grub, the Grub menu now appeared upon restarting the laptop. But then Windows would not boot; when the Windows option was selected in the Grub menu, the Grub menu simply reappeared. The solution for this was described in an answer to the aforementioned forum post.

First, copy the Windows-specific menuentry in /boot/grub/grub.cfg and append it to the file /etc/grub.d/40_custom. Edit the chainloader path so that it looks like /EFI/Microsoft/bootmgfw.efi (i.e., delete the Boot/ segment of the path). Change the label for the entry to something like ‘Windows 10 Hack’, to distinguish it from the existing Windows entry. Finally, run update-grub.

If you update Windows 10 later, you will need to repeat the three commands shown above for overwriting Microsoft’s UEFI boot loader.

Update: It turns out that the large amount of space used by Windows on this particular machine was due to the presence of Faronics Deep Freeze. This is a terrible piece of software that attempts to provide some kind of protection from system-level changes on Windows. It slowed down the machine so much as to make it nearly unusable. Once I uninstalled Deep Freeze (a non-trivial task), I found it had left a 19 GB file in the Windows root directory called persis0.dsk. Windows would not let me delete this file, because it was being used by svchost.exe. I was forced to use Linux to delete the file.