It almost goes without saying that when you buy a PC, part of the price is the Microsoft Tax, to pay for a copy of Windows whether you want it or not. Windows, unlike free operating systems, is bereft of useful software like word processors and spreadsheets. You would think that having to pay for an operating system would give you more features, but the opposite is true. So if you decide to stick with the Windows OS that came with your computer (as mostly people think they must), then it also goes without saying that you will want to pay another Microsoft Tax, to obtain a copy of Office. And in my experience, the most common reason people give for buying Office is so that they can have a copy of Word, which is a hugely bloated word processor.
Putting aside the hazards of entrusting one’s documents to proprietary software and data formats, let’s focus on the perceived need for a word processor. Even Windows includes a basic text editor. But from what I’ve observed, most people who buy Word end up using it as mostly as a text editor, and hardly touch any of its more powerful features. Those extra features are, admittedly, useful when you want to make something look pretty on paper. Word, like all WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) word processors, gives you full control of the appearance of every character in document, from font family to point size and beyond. And that’s just scratching the surface of what can be done.
But is this kind of fine control of a document’s appearance really necessary? Or rather, is a word processor really the right tool for this job?
Let’s say we’re starting to write a book in Word. We know we’ll want to have chapter titles that will stand out in some way. So we type the title of our first chapter, then realize we need to make the text bigger, and perhaps bolder. So we use the toolbar (called a "ribbon" these days) and select a font size. But that doesn’t seem to do anything. Then we remember that when we want to change the formatting of existing text, we have to select it first. So we sweep over the chapter title with the mouse, then select a larger font size.
So far so good. The chapter title is definitely bigger. Now let’s type the first few sentences of our chapter. Oops! The text is super-large! How did that happen? Oh, right – our first attempt to change the chapter title size only managed to set the default size for subsequent text. So we need to set the default font size back to something small again. But the enlarged text we just typed has to be fixed, too. So we select it, and then shrink it.
Now we’re cooking. But after typing a few more paragraphs, we realize that the chapter title might need some more tweaking. We’ve noticed that chapter titles in books by our favorite novelists sometimes use a different typeface than the main text, and are typically boldfaced. Perhaps the chapter title should use a sans-serif font. So we to select the chapter title, then select a sans-serif font, then select the "bold" icon. That looks better, and we resume working on our opening chapter.
This kind of fiddling with appearance is an appalling waste of time. Instead of encouraging us to focus on writing, Word’s power as formatter is encouraging us to become typesetters, and not very good ones at that. Because we’re Word novices and haven’t yet discovered templates (and most Word users probably never do), we have to do the same kind of tedious fiddly work whenever we want to change the appearance of some piece of text. We have to make sure that chapter headings all uses the same formatting. If we’re writing a trashy novel in the style of James Patterson, with 107 chapters, three prologues, and three epilogues, that’s a lot of fiddling. We’ll end up doing the kind of work that computers should be doing for us.
So is there a better way? There is, and it’s not a new thing at all. The idea is to focus on the meaning of the text – its logical structure – and not its appearance. We would like to be able to say, "this piece of text is a chapter title", and then just let the computer render it appropriately for print (or the web, or whatever our target medium might be). We can tell the computer how we want all chapter titles to appear, and it can make that appearance happen without any further intervention on our part.
Conventional word processors, being focused on appearance, make this more difficult. They offer templates, but the WYSIWYG view obscures the logical structure and presents only typographical information.
Text processors that let the users focus on logical structure have been around a long time. The first one to be used widely was Brian Reid’s Scribe, which was available on VMS in the 1980s. Unlike previous text formatters, which were mostly spinoffs of DEC’s "runoff", it had a flexible syntax that allowed markup to be placed anywhere in the text, not just on separate lines. The markup was actually a kind of programming language, in which new logical environments could be defined, either based on existing environments (a kind of single inheritance), or defined entirely from scratch.
An example should make this more clear. In Scribe, it was easy to write nested enumerated lists or description without worrying about the numbers incrementing or the indentation of the list items. Let’s say we’re writing a book about how to assemble a simple computer from a kit. We could write something like this:
@chapter(How to assemble your motherboard) The kit you received includes several parts packets: @begin(enumerate) Packet 1 consists of the following pieces: @begin(description, spread 0 lines) CPU@\A CPU chip RAM@\Two RAM chips SIO@\A serial port @end(description) Packet 2 consists of a circuit board. It is @b(self-contained). @end(enumerate)
Scribe would render this as:
Chapter 1 How to assemble your motherboard
The kit you received includes several parts packets:
- A CPU chip
- Two RAM chips
- A serial port
- Packet 2 consists of a circuit board. It is self-contained.
In this example, we used several environments: "chapter" for a chapter title, "enumerate" for a numbered list, "description" for a description list, and "b" for a boldfaced word. The "chapter" environment boldfaced the title and inserted the correct chapter number for us; it also generated an entry in a table of contents (not shown here). The "enumerate" environment generated the correct item numbers for us, and indented the list items properly. We didn’t have to worry about any of that formatting fussiness.
Now, strictly speaking, the "b" environment does not describe a logical structure; it defines a typographical suggestion (boldface). But in Scribe we could easily define a logical environment for the words that we wanted to emphasize:
@define(emph = b)
Then to emphasize some text, we would do this:
@emph(these words are emphasized).
This involves slightly more typing. But if we decide later that we want emphasized words to be italicized rather than boldfaced, we can redefine the emph environment without having to change the many instances of the emphasized words:
@define(emph = i)
The Scribe model was later copied by Mark of the Unicorn in their PC-based text formatter, Final Word II. FWII was then bought by Borland and used in their Sprint word processor. Although Sprint had a pseudo-WYSIWYG text editor, the formatter could be used standalone, allowing you to continue using your favorite editor.
But unfortunately, Scribe and Sprint were commercial, proprietary, closed-source products that eventually died, leaving their users stranded. These days, the preferred text formatter that follows Scribe’s semantic markup model is LaTeX, which uses Donald Knuth’s TeX as its typesetting language. LaTeX and TeX are free and open-source programs that are widely used and not likely to disappear. More on this next time.